Tanya Edwards, MD, MEd
During the past decade, we have begun to develop a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis of many diseases that are associated with aging. Most diseases that carry the largest burden in terms of morbidity and mortality in our culture have their underlying etiology in the inflammatory process.1 Inflammation has been characteristically described as redness, swelling, pain, and heat, potentially leading to the loss of function. We now have a clearer understanding of the mediators that are involved in the inflammatory process. The most commonly defined mediators associated with this process of inflammation are the n-6 read more…
Peter Bennett, ND, RAc, DHANP
Some problems in clinical healthcare are straightforward. The patient might present with low back pain, having perhaps strained the quadratus lumborum muscle. The patient history matches the physical exam findings and a treatment program is recommended with fairly predictable outcome.
The problems with toxic patients are more complex: they will seldom present with a history of toxic exposure; their symptoms are multisystem and multifactorial; and the findings of the physical exam may provide little confirmation of the intake. Proceeding to lab evaluation can be difficult because few of the indicators at intake provide a read more…
Elizabeth H. Jeffery, PhD
Almost 50 years ago R.T. Williams first classified detoxification enzymes into phase I (degradative) and phase II (additional) enzymatic reactions. At that time, few of the details we know today were available and very few enzymes were identified. The classification was based on the finding that many xenobiotics, upon entering the liver, are first oxidized (phase I reaction), and then a bulky endogenous compound is added at the site of the oxidation (phase II reaction) before the metabolite is effluxed from the liver into the bile. Remarkably, this classification is still useful, with few exceptions. read more…