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Hormone Imbalances are a Pain in the Neck

Guest post courtesy Labrix Clinical Services, LLC

lab-logoNearly 100 million Americans suffer from chronic pain, with more than 26 million between the ages of 20 and 64 reporting frequent low back pain (the most common location). There can be many etiologies to pain including injury, infection, arthritis, nerve damage etc. although there is typically an underlying inflammatory component with any primary condition that not only contributes to ongoing pain and suffering, but prevents healing and tissue repair. Testing for hormone levels is often considered when a patient reports issues with libido, hot flashes, or even fatigue, but chronic pain and inflammation are also reflections of imbalances in hormones including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and thyroid.

Estradiol
Estrogen deficiency has been repeatedly linked to osteoarthritis (OA) as estrogens influence the activity of joint tissues by regulating bone production and remodeling, promoting muscle growth as well as decreasing muscle breakdown. Estradiol has also been shown to enhance glycosaminoglycan synthesis and protect chondrocytes from oxygen species-induced damage. Estrogen replacement has proven to protect against OA as well as improve radiographic changes and reduce incidence of joint replacement.

Progesterone:
Progesterone is widely touted as being anti-inflammatory, possibly because of it’s relationship to cortisol in the hormone cascade. More specifically, progesterone has been shown to reduce neuropathic pain.

Testosterone:
Testosterone is an anabolic hormone, meaning that it contributes to the build up and strengthening of tissues. Testosterone has also been shown to reduce inflammatory markers including TNF-alpha, IL-1B and IL-6 and increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

Cortisol:
One of the primary roles of cortisol in the body is to reduce inflammation and control an immune response. Cortisol secretion is intended to be short-term, to handle an acute situation and then return to baseline levels, however chronic stress and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can lead to a depletion of cortisol, allowing inflammatory processes to proceed uninhibited and lead to swelling, pain and the destruction of tissue.

Thyroid:
Musculoskeletal symptoms are commonly seen with hypothyroid patients including muscle weakness, pain, numbness and arthritis. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reduced in hypothyroid patients undergoing thyroid replacement. Analysis and correction of hormone imbalances is imperative to the successful treatment of musculoskeletal complaints.

An easy at-home Labrix salivary hormone test kit will allow you to obtain a snapshot of your patient’s hormonal status. Email customerservice@labrix.com to order test kits for your practice today. To learn more about how hormone testing can impact your patient’s lives, register to attend Labrix Advanced Workshop in Las Vegas on January 16 and 17, 2016. Labrix staff physicians and Medical Director Jay Mead MD, as well as Associate Medical Director and CEO Erin Lommen ND will dive deeper into clinical cases and will offer an intimate and in-depth intensive on hormone balancing, the complex relationship between sex hormones, adrenal hormones and neurotransmitters and the complicated symptom pictures that can result from these imbalances.

References:

  • National Centers for Health Statistics, Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans 2006, Special Feature: Pain. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus06.pdf.
  • Roman-Blas JA, Castaneda S, Largo R, Herrero-Beaumont G. Osteoarthritis assoiciated with estrogen deficiency. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(5):241.
  • Zhang Y, McAlidnon TE, Hannon MT et al. Estrogen replacement therapy and worsening of radiographic knee osteoarthritis: the Framingham Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Oct;41(10):1867-73.
  • Cirillo DJ, Wallace RB, Wu L, Yood RA. Effect of hormone therapy on risk of hip and knee joint replacement in the Women’s Health Initiative. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Oct;54(10):3194-204.
  • Verdi J, Jafari-Sabet M, Mokhtari R, et al. The effect of progesterone on expression and development of neuropathic pain in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013 Jan 15,699(1-3):207-12.
  • Malkin CJ, Puhg PJ, Jones RD, Kapoor D, Channer KS, Jones TH. The effect of testosterone replacement on endogenous inflammatory cytokines and lipid profiles in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jul;89(7):3313-8.
  • Marques AH, Silverman MN, Sternberg EM. Glucocorticoid dysregulations and their clinical correlates. From receptors to therapeutics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Oct; 1179: 1-18.
  • Cakir, M., Samanci, N., Balci, N. and Balci, M. K. (2003), Musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with thyroid disease. Clinical Endocrinology, 59: 162–167.
  • Marchiori RC, Pereira LA, Naujorks AA, et al. Improvement of blood inflammatory marker levels in patients with hypothyroidism under levothyroxine treatment. BMC Endocr Disord. 2015 Jun 23;15:32.

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